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優特資訊

  • UTFOOD information

自制食品缺相關食品機械設備 安全隱患令人憂

新聞摘要: Self-made foods lack of related food machinery and equipment safety hazards cause concern

       從大家熟知的泡菜、臘肉、藥酒,到豆漿、酸奶、餅干,再到時下流行的葡萄酒、水果酵素,時尚的自制食品走進人們的生活。但是,自制食品真的安全嗎?我們首先從時下最流行的葡萄酒說起?! ?/span>
  郭女士退休后就迷上了自制食品,除每天一杯自榨豆漿外,她還在去年釀了20斤葡萄酒和10斤水果酵素。郭女士對自釀的葡萄酒很是滿意,春節時還特意將酒拿出來款待客人。然而,她并不知道,同是飲用自釀葡萄酒,有人卻“喝”進了醫院?! ?/span>
  2008年11月,一直喜歡自釀葡萄酒的寧波張先生喝了1公斤多葡萄酒后,感覺頭暈眼花,之后雙眼視力變得模糊不清,醫生檢查他患了中毒性急性視神經炎,視力一落千丈,最低到0.1?! ?/span>
  2013年,重慶一男士在喝了媳婦自釀的葡萄酒后上吐下瀉,最后被送到醫院救治。當時的診斷醫生西南醫院急救部副主任任小寶解釋說,自釀葡萄酒有很多講究,否則易帶毒或菌群超標,“家庭釀制過程還沒有除去甲醇和雜醇油的工藝?!薄 ?/span>
  業內人士介紹,去甲醇在工業釀酒中是一種比較成熟的工藝,但私人釀酒普遍不具備這種工藝,也缺乏相應的檢測手段和標準。云南大學生命科學學院副研究員王興紅曾指出,葡萄酒在發酵過程中酵母菌的主要代謝產物是乙醇,但同時也會產生甲醇。國外允許自釀葡萄酒,但是不允許用葡萄酒蒸餾提純白蘭地,就是因為如果不懂分餾,很容易造成有害物質濃縮。甲醇有強毒性,用于工業,一些“假白酒”之所以造成受害人失明、死亡,多源自酒中摻雜了甲醇成分?! ?/span>
  酸奶、酵素等發酵類食品易細菌超標  
  說完葡萄酒,咱來說說辣媽、白領最愛的酸奶了。酸奶的確是很好的食品,老少皆宜,小編也很愛喝。但是,現在超市購買的酸奶絕大多數都有十幾種的添加劑,一些消費者為了吃得更安心,選擇自己自制酸奶。再加上現在酸奶機價格實惠,操作簡單,還是很受消費者青睞的。但事實又真的如此,安全可靠么?  
  在百度,一位媽媽求助,她的寶寶每次喝了自制的酸奶后都拉肚子。江蘇省營養學會公共營養師培訓辦公室主任顏曉東介紹,“自制酸奶能夠根據不同人對甜度的要求進行調整。但制作過程要很細心,以免混入雜菌,否則不但影響酸奶口感,也會對人體造成影響?!鳖仌詵|說,自制酸奶不宜用菌粉,因為即使菌粉本身沒問題,在存放中也會因為保存不當而產生雜菌?!白詈玫囊邮浅匈徺I的新鮮酸奶,一次用完。如果用每次做成的酸奶做引子,家庭操作不可能保證完全無菌,會導致雜菌越來越多,對人體產生危害?!?/span>
  
  自制食品細菌易超標的還有深受健康人士青睞的“水果酵素”。去年,由于連續喝了半個月的自制飲料,煙臺市民小邱出現了嘔吐、惡心等中毒癥狀。小邱所飲用的飲料就是“水果酵素”,但由于發酵所產生的細菌并不一定都是益生菌,再加上衛生不達標,從而造成食物中毒?! ?/span>
  對于水果酵素的功能,專家持懷疑態度?!八退亍钡牟淮_定性還要大一些?!八退亍逼鋵嵤且粋€簡單的發酵過程:在細菌的代謝中,糖被轉化成酒、乳酸、醋酸等,并產生各種各樣的酶?!胺且堰@些酶叫做‘水果酵素’也不是不可以,問題是在這種‘自制’的簡易條件下,不能對細菌的種類進行選擇,也無法對產生的酶進行分析?!毕胍灾扑退禺a生有助于減肥、美容、提高抵抗力的酶,并不是一件可以把控的事?! ?/span>
  小編觀點:設備跟不上自制熱潮,還是正規食品企業好?! ?/span>
  類似這樣的例子還有很多,小編就不一一列舉了。中國農業大學食品科學與營養工程學院副教授朱毅建議,家庭自制類似葡萄酒、自榨油、水果酵素等這類工業食品時,食材選擇、加工過程、衛生把控等方面都可能存在潛在隱患,有的食品其實并不適合家庭自制。這樣看來,消費者在選購食品時,去有保障的大商場或許比自制要安全的多。畢竟,正規的食品企業有較完善的食品生產和檢測設備,能夠保障食品安全。我想,一般家庭消費者也不會因為享受自制美食而花大價錢購買殺菌設備、釀酒設備吧?! ?/span>

  目前,自制食品之所以還在流行,一方面是大家對食品安全問題的顧慮未消減,另一方面是消費者對自制食品存在的潛在危險認識不清。在小編看來,自制食品想達到正規食品企業生產的食品安全標準,是不太可能的,因為缺乏技術和設備的支持。未來,若食品機械企業專攻家用食品機械方面,針對性的研制僅供家庭使用的小型設備,解決上訴自制食品安全問題,或許能開辟出另一片市場。但是,這畢竟只是小編粗略的想法,食品企業以及上游食品機械生產設備企業,要想抓住市場,抓住消費者,還要在食品安全上下功夫,怎樣為消費者提供更加有安全保障的食品生產工藝,是大家都要思考的問題。如果有一天,消費者不再擔心商場買來的食品是否安全,那么自制也就不像現在那么被推崇,那么食品工業也將得到更好的發展。


From the well-known Kimchi, bacon, medicinal wine, to soy milk, yogurt, biscuits, to the current popular wine, fruit enzymes, fashion homemade food into people's lives. But is home-made food really safe? Let's start with the most popular wines of the day.
After retiring, MS Guo became obsessed with homemade foods. In addition to a glass of self-pressed soy milk a day, she made 20 pounds of wine and 10 pounds of fruit enzymes last year. Ms Guo is very satisfied with her own wine. She also deliberately takes out the wine to entertain the guests during the Spring Festival. However, she did not know that she was drinking her own wine, and some people "drank" into the hospital.
In November 2008, Ningbo Mr. Zhang, who had been fond of home-made wine, felt dizzy after drinking more than 1 kilogram of wine. After that, his eyesight became blurred. The doctor examined him suffering from toxic acute optic neuritis and his vision plummeted. 0.1.
In 2013, a man in Chongqing puffed up and down after drinking his wife's homemade wine and was finally taken to hospital for treatment. At that time, the diagnostic doctor, Renxiaobao, deputy director of the emergency department of the Southwest Hospital, explained that there was a lot of stress on self-brewing wine, otherwise it was prone to poisoning or excessive flora. "The process of home brewing has not yet removed methanol and miscellaneous alcohols. "
Industry insiders said that methanol removal is a relatively mature process in industrial winemaking, but private winemaking generally does not have this process, and there is a lack of corresponding detection methods and standards. Wangxinghong, associate researcher at the School of Life Sciences at Yunnan University, once pointed out that the main metabolite of yeast in wine during fermentation is ethanol, but it also produces methanol. Foreign wine is allowed to be brewed, but brandy is not allowed to be distilled from wine because it is easy to concentrate harmful substances if you do not understand fractionation. Methanol is highly toxic and used in industry. Some "fake liquor" causes the victim to lose sight and die, mostly due to methanol in the wine.
Fermentation foods such as Yoghurt and enzymes are susceptible to bacteria
After wine, let's talk about hot mom, white-collar favorite yogurt. Yogurt is indeed a very good food, both young and old, small editors also love to drink. However, the majority of yogurt purchased by supermarkets now has more than a dozen additives. Some consumers choose to make their own yogurt in order to eat more safely. Plus, the price of today's yogurt is affordable, and the operation is simple. It is still very popular with consumers. But it's true. Is it safe?
At Baidu, a mother asked for help. Her baby had diarrhea every time she drank homemade Yoghurt. "Self-made Yoghurt can be adjusted according to the sweetness requirements of different people," said Yanxiaodong, director of the training office of public nutritionists at the Jiangsu Nutrition Society. However, the production process must be very careful to avoid mixing with miscellaneous bacteria, otherwise it will not only affect the taste of yogurt, but also affect the human body. "Yanxiaodong said that self-made Yoghurt should not be used as a bacteria powder, because even if the bacteria powder itself is no problem, it will produce miscellaneous bacteria due to improper preservation. "The best introduction is fresh yogurt purchased by the supermarket and used up at once. If you use yogurt made each time as an introduction, home operations can not guarantee complete sterility, which will lead to more and more bacteria and cause harm to the human body. "
Homemade food bacteria are easy to exceed the "fruit enzyme" that is popular among healthy people. Last year, as a result of drinking home-made drinks for half a month in a row, Xiaoqiu, a citizen of Yantai, developed symptoms of vomiting, nausea and other poisoning. The beverage that Xiaoqiu drinks is "fruit enzyme", but because the bacteria produced by fermentation are not necessarily probiotics, coupled with poor hygiene, food poisoning is caused.
Experts are skeptical about the function of fruit enzymes. The "fruit enzyme" is even more uncertain. "Fruit enzyme" is actually a simple fermentation process: In the metabolism of bacteria, sugar is converted into wine, lactic acid, acetic acid, etc., and produces a variety of enzymes. "It is not impossible to call these enzymes 'fruit enzymes'. The problem is that under this simple condition of 'self-made', the species of bacteria can not be selected or the enzymes produced can not be analyzed. "It is not a matter of control to want to make homemade fruit enzymes to produce enzymes that help lose weight, beauty, and improve resistance.
A small editorial point of view: equipment can not keep up with the boom, or formal food companies are good.
There are many examples like this, and the small editors do not list them all. Zhuyi, associate professor of the School of Food Science and Nutrition at China Agricultural University, suggested that when home-made industrial foods such as wine, self-extracting oil, and fruit enzymes, there may be potential risks in the selection of ingredients, processing processes, and hygiene control. Some foods are actually not suitable for home cooking. In this way, it may be safer for consumers to go to a large and secure shopping mall than to make their own choices. After all, formal food companies have better food production and testing equipment to ensure food safety. I don't think the average home consumer would pay a lot for sterilization or winemaking equipment to enjoy home-made foods.
At present, the reason why home-made foods are still popular is that people's concerns about food safety have not subsided. On the other hand, consumers are unaware of the potential dangers of home-made foods. In the opinion of the small editor, it is unlikely that home-made foods will meet the food safety standards produced by formal food companies because of the lack of support from technology and equipment. In the future, if food machinery companies specialize in domestic food machinery, targeted development of small equipment for domestic use only, solving the problem of appellate home-made food safety may open up another market. But, after all, this is just a sketchy idea of how food companies and upstream food machinery and equipment companies can capture markets, capture consumers, and work on food safety to provide consumers with a more secure food production process. It's a question everyone has to think about. If the day comes when consumers stop worrying about the safety of food they buy at the mall, when self-control is less admired than it is today, the food industry will grow better.

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